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CD size record player

Products and services for audio restoration: Recording, noise reduction and transfer to CD of records, tapes, wires, belts and cylinders.

Save precious family history, preserve collectible recordings, and archive recording collections. Add photos and graphics to make personalized gifts or for a more professional looking product.


Celebrating over 14 years of


Now recording at up to 24bit/96kHz

Types of media that can be restored




Digital Audio

Pro Audio



33rpm vinyl transfer

LP, also called "album" - 1948-present.
10-12" diameter, made from vinyl.
The RIAA equalization curve standard was settled on in 1954, stereo came in 1958, dbx and CX discs in 1973 and quadraphonic discs about the same time.
We can decode the CX and dbx records.
We built a phonograph preamp that actively cancels turntable rumble 3 octaves higher than any filter while leaving the music totally intact. It's called the Derumbleizer

78rpm record - 1901-1960
10" diameter, typically made with shellac, turning at 78.26rpm but can be as slow as 16-2/3rpm and as fast as 130rpm.
12 inch records introduced in 1903. Acoustic recording ceased in 1925 with the advent of electrical recording.
16" transcription discs turning at 78 or 33-1/3rpm were used by radio stations as an archival medium.
Custom records of various sizes, speeds and compositions were made at studios and in homes with record cutters. Many were made by the USO for servicemen to send home to their families during WWII.
78rpm records were recorded at many equalization curves so we built a phonograph preamp with variable equalization settings to accomodate all known equalization curves, and then some.

Click on any thumbnail for larger pictures

78 record, 16 inch transcription, cardboard record, flexible record, presto record, recordio, speak-o-phone, victor home recording, audograph, soundscriber, edison voicewriter

45rpm record

45rpm record, introduced in 1949
7" diameter with a large center hole and made from vinyl or polystyrene.

Gray Audograph dictation record, introduced in 1945.
Made from thin, flexible vinyl with a spline hole in the center.
The grooves weren't cut into the vinyl but rather embossed by deforming the plastic.
The rpm was variable as it had a mechanism that rotated the turntable at a constant linear velocity at the tonearm which made the tonal quality constant from the edge to the center.

Audograph flexible record

Telefunken magnetic disc

Telefunken magnetic disc, introduced 1962.
The disc is flexible plastic stamped with a spiral groove and coated with iron oxide, the same material used on reels of recording tape.
The record/playback head, much like a tape deck head, was guided by the groove on the record by a stylus.
The model 600 dictation machine was portable as it had a built-in battery and used transistors instead of tubes.

Soundscriber dictation record, introduced in 1945.
Made from thin, flexible vinyl with a square hole in the center.
The grooves weren't cut into the vinyl but rather embossed by deforming the plastic at 33-1/3rpm.

Soundscriber flexible record

Edison Voicewriter disc

Edison Voicewriter disc, late 1940s-1960s.
Made from thin, flexible vinyl with a round hole in the center.
The grooves weren't cut into the vinyl but rather embossed by deforming the plastic at 12-30rpm.


10" reel of 1/4" tape.
Typical speeds of 7-1/2 ips (inches per second) 15ips and 30ips.
Tape can be recorded full track (across the entire width of the tape), 2 track or 4 track.
2 track tape can be either mono in one or two directions or stereo in one.
4 track tapes can be 4 mono tracks in one or both directions or 2 stereo recordings in one or two directions. (two directions being the most common)
Tapes recorded with Dolby B and dbx up to 4 tracks can be decoded.

10 inch reel to reel tape

7 inch reel to reel tape

7" reel of 1/4" tape
Tape recorder invented in 1920 Germany which used a strip of steel as the recording medium. Paper backed iron oxide recording tape was created in 1935, again in Germany.
The tonal quality was drastically improved in the '40s through the recording method of adding "bias" to the recording signal. (too technical to get into here)
In 1948 Ampex made the first U.S. tape decks.
Tape speeds go from 15/16ips (inches per second) to 30 and reel sizes range from 3 to 14" diameter.
Tape widths range from 1/4" to 2" wide.
We can handle tape speeds from 3-3/4ips to 15ips,(others with software speed correction) number of tracks to 16, tape widths to 1" and reel sizes up to 10".
Tapes encoded with Dolby B can be decoded up to 4 tracks, dbx can be decoded up to 8 tracks and 8 track tapes can be decoded with Dolby C.

Compact Cassette tape - 1962-2001
0.15" wide tape at 1-7/8ips. Dolby B recorders introduced in 1971. Dolby C and dbx came later.
Tapes can be either two mono or stereo tracks and are compatible with each other.
Some semi-professional formats have 4 or 8 tracks sometimes recorded with Dolby B or dbx.
Stereo tapes encoded with dbx or Dolby B or C can be decoded.

cassette tape

8-track tape

8 track tape - 1964-1982
An endless loop tape cartridge with 1/4" tape running at 3-3/4ips which gets drawn out from the inside of the internal spool and returned to the outside in one direction only. All layers of tape slip past each other on the spool.
The tape is arranged as program 1 using tracks 1 and 5, 2 using 2 and 6, 3 using 3 and 7 and 4 using 4 and 8.
The tape head moves up and down when selecting tracks.
Some recorders used Dolby B.

4 track Muntz "Stereo Pak" Mid '60s
An endless loop cartridge with 1/4" tape running at 3-3/4ips with two stereo tracks.

Muntz 4 track stereo tape

NAB broadcast cart tape

NAB broadcast "cart" 1954-late '90s.
An endless loop tape cartridge 4" wide with mono, stereo or 3 tracks at 7-1/2ips. The third track was used for cueing and stopping the tape at specific locations and later for radio station automation.

Sony Elcaset 1976-1980
1/4" reel to reel tape in a large cassette enclosure, 6x4x1/2".
A failed attempt at a high fidelity portable format. Ran at 3-3/4ips and had 6 tracks: two stereo tracks and two marker/cue tracks.
It was a very expesive tape deck that debuted just at the time compact cassettes were getting close to reel to reel performance, so it never caught on.

Elcaset tape

Minicassette and microcassette

Minicassette and Microcassette, introduced 1967 and 1969
At about half the size of a Compact Cassette it was a more portable format aimed at dictation and other spoken word uses but not music.
They ran at 2.4cm/sec or 1.2cm/sec and the tape was about 0.15" wide.

Playtape endless loop cartridge, introduced 1966
The portable player was popular for a short time and the tapes played from 8 to 24 minutes with two tracks of audio and measured 3x3-1/4 inches.

Playtape cartridge

RCA Sound Tape

RCA Sound Tape cartridge, 1958-1964
The cassettes were twice the size of the Compact Cassette at 5x7x1/2".
They ran at 3-3/4 or 1-7/8ips and some models were stereo. The tapes recorded 30 minutes each side at the faster speed.

Dictaphone Picocassette 1985
The tape being half the size of the Microcassette and the player about half the size of a deck or cards made this a very portable recording medium.
The tape ran at 9mm/sec and a tape held 60 minutes.

Dictaphone Picocassette

Stuzzi Memocord tape cartridge

Stuzzi Memocord 1965
A Compact Cassette type dictation medium with an interesting method of control: you insert the tape cassette and pressing down on one side engages the playback and the other side, rewind. A record button is on the unit next to the Playback end. The cassettes measure 100x52x10mm.

Grundig DeJur Versatile III, 1960s
Another battery powered portable dictation tape format. 1/4" tape on two reels attached to each other by a bridge which slides onto the dictation device. The speaker doubles as the microphone for recording.

Grundig DeJur tape cartridge

Channel Master cartridge

Channel Master/Sanyo Micro Pak - 1960s
A portable dictation device using two stacked reels of 1/4" tape. The tape travels from the top reel, diagonally past the recod/playback heads and to the bottom reel which is driven by a motor shaft engaging the rim of the reel.

Mohawk Midgetape - 1950
The world's first portable battery powered tape player measuring 8-1/2x3-1/2x1-7/8 inches.
The player had an all metal construction and the tape also was housed in a metal case.
The two reels of tape were stacked atop each other like the Sanyo Micro Pak but you had to draw the tape out and thread it around the capstan and record/play head.

Mohawk Midgetape tape cartridge

Grundig Steno-Cassette

Grundig Steno-Cassette 1971
Yet another portable dictation format with the added feature of the tape having an integrated time counter.

Cousino Echomatic cartridge - 1962-early '70s.
The endless loop cartridge was invented by Bernard Cousino in 1952 and is the grandaddy of all endless loop cartridge formats: NAB Cart, Fidelipac, Muntz and 8 track.

Orrtronics Cousino Echomatic tape cartridge

Dictaphone Dictet tape cassette

Dictaphone Dictet cassette 1957
Again, two reels of 1/4" tape housed in a cassette, this time made from metal and about 1/3 larger than the Compact Cassette.

Grundig DeJur reel to reel
This reel of tape will not fit onto a regular tape deck, therefore the tape will be wound onto a 3" or 5" reel and recorded that way. It will then be rewound on its original reel after recording.

Grundig DeJur reel to reel

Fidelipac A, B and C cartridges

Fidelipac 1954
Endless loop cartridges with 1/4 inch tape in 4" (type A), 6" (type B) and 8" (type C) wide cartridges.
Type A carts run at 7.5ips and the others at 3-3/4ips.
The type A, also known as the NAB cart was used mostly in radio stations for airing spots and other short recordings. The type B was used in various applications that required longer playing time, and the type C was used mostly for background music.

Grundig Stenorette tape cartridge.
This reel of tape will not fit onto a regular tape deck, therefore the tape will be wound onto a 3" or 5" reel and recorded that way. It will then be rewound on its original reel after recording.

Grundig Stenorette tape


Stenocord magnetic belt

Stenocord magnetic belt 1960
The belts are 6" wide and 14" around and are recorded and played back magnetically, like cassette and reel to reel tapes.
The first Stenocord units were tube based but later versions were transistorized.

Dictaphone Dictabelt (1947-1980) and IBM Magnabelt (1961-1972)
The Dictaphone Dictabelt was a dictation format using a flexible record material formed into a belt and the IBM Magnabelt used a belt form of magnetic tape.

Dictaphone Dictabelt and Magnabelt

Digital Audio


Minidisc 1992-2013
The disc is housed in an enclosure 68x72x5mm, holds 74 minutes of audio and is magneto-optical. When recording, a laser heats the disc and the record/playback head magnetizes the region as North or South, which changes the reflectivity of the region. During playback the laser, at a lower power, reads the region and like a CD player recognizes the regions as either a 1 or 0 binary bit. The audio is a compressed format.
The MDLP mode compresses the audio more so that more audio can be put into the same space as the normal mode.

DCC (Digital Compact Cassette) 1992
Introduced as a successor to the Compact Cassette, it recorded digital audio onto a special cassette tape the size of a standard Compact Cassette and could play back the analog Compact Cassettes as well.
The digital encoding resembled MP3 in it's fidelity and compression and since it was digital, there was no "tape hiss". Despite these advantages, the format never caught on and quickly faded.

DCC tape

USB drive and CD

Audio on CD or USB drives can be improved and converted to CD or other audio formats

FTR files for court recordings can be put onto CD and any or all of the 4 channels of audio can be selected

USB drive and CD

USB drive and CD

Digital files can be converted to and from the following formats:
AAC, AC3, AIFF, AMR, CD audio, DDP, FLAC, FTR, (court proceedings) GSM, MP2, MP3, MP3PRO, M4A, OGG, WAV, WAVpack, WMA

Pro Audio

1" 16 track tape on 10" reel
All tracks will be recorded at the same time and in sync.
Tapes recorded with dbx can be decoded.
7.5, 15 and 30ips tapes can be done.

One inch 16 track reel to reels transferred to individual .wav files for your own mixdown.

4 track and 8 track quarter inch reel to reel tapes transferred to individual .wav files for your own mixdown.

1/4" tape on 7" reel
Tapes recorded with Dolby B (up to 4 tracks) and dbx (up to 8 tracks) can be decoded. All tracks will be recorded at the same time and in sync.

10" reel of 1/4" tape
Tapes recorded with Dolby B or dbx can be decoded. All tracks will be recorded at the same time and in sync.

4 track quarter inch reel to reels transferred to individual .wav files for your own mixdown.

4 track cassette

Pro Audio 4 or 8 track cassette
Tapes recorded with Dolby B, (up to 4 tracks) and dbx (up to 8) can be decoded. All tracks will be recorded at the same time and in sync.

Digital Audio Tape (DAT) 1987
CD quality digital audio on tape using the helical scan method much like videocassettes.

Digital Audio Tape

ADAT type I / II 8 track tapes can be transferred to individual .wav files so you can mixdown your studio recordings

Alesis ADAT tape - 1991
8 tracks of 16 or 20 bit audio at 44.1kHz or 48kHz bitrate on Super VHS videotape.
All tracks will be recorded at the same time and in sync.

DA-88 DTRS digital audio tape - 1993
8 tracks of digital audio on 8mm videotape.
All tracks will be recorded at the same time and in sync.

DTRS 8 channel digital audio

pro reel

10" reel of 1/2" tape
Mono, stereo and 4, 8 and 16 track tapes can be decoded with dbx or Dolby B or dbx.

PCM-F1 1981
The first consumer/semi-pro device to put CD quality audio onto videotape. U-Matic, Beta and VHS decks were used. The device converted the audio into a video signal to be recorded onto tape.

PCM-F1 audio can be put onto CD from VHS, Beta and U-Matic video tapes.

Mono and stereo Data Minidisc audio will be put onto CD, 4 and 8 track Data Minidisc audio will be individual .wav files for your own mixdown.

Data Minidisc 1992-2013
Mono, stereo, 4 and 8 tracks of audio put onto Data MDs will be recorded at the same time and in sync.

2" 24 track tape
One of the most common professional recording studio formats.
Runs at 15 or 30 inches per second.


Edison 2 minute wax and 4 minute wax and Amberol cylinders 1896-1929
4" long and 2-1/4" diameter cylinders turning at 160rpm recorded audio acoustically onto master cylinders. After that, molds were made to make duplicates.
The cylinders were made from a hard wax or for the Amberols, plaster with a celluliod coating which contained the grooves.
Dictation machines using cylinders could "erase" the grooves by shaving the cylinders for multiple uses.

Edison 4 minute blue amberol cylinder record

Wire recording spool

Wire recording 1946-1954
Invented in the 1890s but the audio was very poor. It had limited use in the '20s and '30s. After WWII the audio quality improved dramatically and consumer wire recorders were made by a number of manufacturers. The wire moved at 2 feet per second past a record/playback head with a V groove in it to hold the wire. As it was played or rewound the head moved up and down to "bail" the wire to create an even wind.

RCA wire cartridge 1948
The recording wire was put into a cartridge that slid into the front of a player/recorder, so no threading of the wire was needed. In addition, two spools of wire were contained in the cartridge so that after recording forward on one wire, you could continue backwards on the other wire almost instantly.

Don't see your recording?
Let us know and if there's enough demand, it'll be added to our repertoire.
Precision Audio Restoration takes your old recordings and restores them at reasonable prices.
Backup copies of your CDs can be made. Consider it "Audio Insurance", just in case something happens to them.
Listen to some before and after examples of restored recordings.
For a more detailed description of what's done, look at the process itself.
Precision Audio Restoration has developed the DERUMBLEIZER, a unique device, which actively cancels rumble 3 octaves higher than any filter, leaving the music intact.
Now you can purchase a Derumbleizer for your own stereo system, it will be much happier with less rumble to contend with! (and so will you)
See and hear some finished CD projects and audio clips.
Your satisfaction is unconditionally guaranteed with no fine print.
Read some testimonials from satisfied customers.
Support PAR's partners .
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Precision Audio Restoration doesn't have a recording studio, doesn't do video, and never goes on the road with rock bands.
Therefore, your recordings won't be preempted by "more important" jobs.

"Your recordings made better than new"

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Mail recordings to:
Precision Audio Restoration
14419 Greenwood Ave. N., Suite A, Box 321
Seattle, WA 98133
Call 206-387-5662 or email to receive
directions to drop off recordings personally.
By appointment only.

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